I have read about other types of displays that do not use pixels (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vector_monitor). I image the computer graphics pipeline will be different on these devices, but they are no longer used anyway.
All modern displays are raster displays. However, that hasn't stopped the interest in vector based representations, due to their many advantages in situations where you want to at least have a representation of your image that doesn't have built-in aliasing (think fonts).
Research in vector graphics continues, and there has always been an undercurrent of discussion of whether we may want vector displays for some applications. Check out this recent paper for some perspectives: https://people.csail.mit.edu/tzumao/diffvg/